The Selecao lift their first Coma America title since 2007 despite poster boy Neymar being out injured
Jesus set up Everton’s opener and then scored Brazil’s second goal himself to put his side back in front, after Paolo Guerrero had levelled with a penalty.
But the forward was dismissed on 70 minutes for two bookable offences.
His premature departure left Brazil to fight out a tense conclusion, until Everton star Richarlison made the win secure with a late penalty to claim the trophy for the fifth time on home soil.
The victory at the Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro capped off a brilliant tournament for the hosts – with Dani Alves named Player of the Tournament, Gremio starlet Everton finishing as top goalscorer and Liverpool goalkeeper Alisson winning the Golden Glove gong.
All of that while injured poster boy Neymar looked on from the stands.
Brazil took the lead in the 16th minute gone when Jesus created space for himself down the right before crossing for 23-year-old Everton to volley home.
Peru struggled to get a foothold in the game as Brazil dominated the early periods, with Philippe Coutinho firing just wide after latching onto a cross from Liverpool striker Roberto Firmino.
But the plucky Peruvians, who have earned plenty of plaudets for their recent rise, were back in it a minute before half-time from the spot.
Brazil defender Thiago Silva was adjudged to have handled inside the box as he slid into a challenge, and Guerrero sent Alisson the wrong way from the spot – the first goal the Liverpool man had conceded in the whole tournament.
However, Brazil restored their lead in first-half stoppage-time when Jesus swept home another Firmino cross to bring an end to an eventful opening 45 minutes.
Coutinho and Firmino both went close as the hosts attempted to kill the game off immediately after the restart.
But Jesus’ evening took a turn for the worse with 20 minutes remaining when he was sent off for a second bookable offence following a challenge on Carlos Zambrano, having been booked before the break for a foul on Yoshimar Yotun.
Peru sensed an opportunity, but their hopes died when Richarlison converted from 12 yards with two minutes remaining, after Everton had been felled by Zambrano.